How increased oxidative stress promotes longevity and metabolic health: The concept of mitochondrial hormesis (mitohormesis)

 

PUBLICATION
Experimental Gerontology

AUTHOR(S)
M Ristow, K Zarse

ABSTRACT
Recent evidence suggests that calorie restriction and specifically reduced glucose metabolism induces mitochondrial metabolism to extend life span in various model organisms, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans and possibly mice. In conflict with Harman’s free
radical theory of aging (FRTA), these effects may be due to increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the mitochondria causing an adaptive response that culminates in subsequently increased stress resistance assumed to ultimately cause a long-term reduction of oxidative stress. This type of retrograde response has been named mitochondrial hormesis or mitohormesis, and may in addition be applicable to the health-promoting effects of physical exercise in humans and, hypothetically, impaired insulin/IGF-1-signaling in model organisms. Consistently, abrogation of this mitochondrial ROS signal by antioxidants impairs the lifespan-extending and health-promoting capabilities of glucose restriction and physical exercise, respectively. In summary, the findings discussed in this review indicate that ROS are essential signaling molecules which are required to promote health and longevity. Hence, the concept of mitohormesis provides a common mechanistic denominator for the phy

DATE
March 2010

RELATED TOPICS
AGING, METABOLISM, REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES, OXIDATIVE STRESS, GLUCOSE, GLYCOLYSIS, CALORIE RESTRICTIONMITOCHONDRIA

 

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