Prevalence of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Among Children and Adolescents From 2001 to 2009

 

PUBLICATION
JAMA 

AUTHOR(S)
Dana Dabelea, MD, PhD; Elizabeth J. Mayer-Davis, PhD; Sharon Saydah, PhD; Giuseppina Imperatore, MD; Barbara Linder, MD, PhD; Jasmin Divers, PhD; Ronny Bell, PhD ; Angela Badaru, MD; Jennifer W. Talton, MS; Tessa Crume, PhD; Angela D. Liese, PhD; Anwar T. Merchant, DMD, ScD; Jean M. Lawrence, ScD, MPH, MSSA; Kristi Reynolds, PhD; Lawrence Dolan, MD; Lenna L. Liu, MD, MPH; Richard F. Hamman, MD, DrPH

ABSTRACT
IMPORTANCE: Despite concern about an “epidemic,” there are limited data on trends in prevalence of either type 1 or type 2 diabetes across US race and ethnic groups.

OBJECTIVE: To estimate changes in the prevalence of type 1and type 2 diabetes in US youth, by sex, age, and race/ethnicity between 2001 and 2009.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Case patients were ascertained in 4 geographic areas and 1 managed health care plan. The study population was determined by the 2001 and 2009 bridged-race intercensal population estimates for geographic sites and membership counts for the health plan.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Prevalence (per 1000) of physician-diagnosed type 1 diabetes in youth aged 0 through 19 years and type 2 diabetes in youth aged 10 through 19 years.

RESULTS: In 2001, 4958 of 3.3 million youth were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes for a prevalence of 1.48 per 1000 (95% CI, 1.44-1.52). In 2009, 6666 of 3.4 million youth were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes for a prevalence of 1.93 per 1000 (95% CI, 1.88-1.97). In 2009, the highest prevalence of type 1 diabetes was 2.55 per 1000 among white youth (95% CI, 2.48-2.62) and the lowest was 0.35 per 1000 in American Indian youth (95% CI, 0.26-0.47) and type 1 diabetes increased between 2001 and 2009 in all sex, age, and race/ethnic subgroups except for those with the lowest prevalence (age 0-4 years and American Indians). Adjusted for completeness of ascertainment, there was a 21.1% (95% CI, 15.6%-27.0%) increase in type 1 diabetes over 8 years. In 2001, 588 of 1.7 million youth were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes for a prevalence of 0.34 per 1000 (95% CI, 0.31-0.37). In 2009, 819 of 1.8 million were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes for a prevalence of 0.46 per 1000 (95% CI, 0.43-0.49). In 2009, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 1.20 per 1000 among American Indian youth (95% CI, 0.96-1.51); 1.06 per 1000 among black youth (95% CI, 0.93-1.22); 0.79 per 1000 among Hispanic youth (95% CI, 0.70-0.88); and 0.17 per 1000 among white youth (95% CI, 0.15-0.20). Significant increases occurred between 2001 and 2009 in both sexes, all age-groups, and in white, Hispanic, and black youth, with no significant changes for Asian Pacific Islanders and American Indians. Adjusted for completeness of ascertainment, there was a 30.5% (95% CI, 17.3%-45.1%) overall increase in type 2 diabetes.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Between 2001 and 2009 in 5 areas of the United States, the prevalence of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes among children and adolescents increased. Further studies are required to determine the causes of these increases.

DATE
May 2014 

RELATED TOPICS
CHILDRENDIABETES

VIEW STUDY (Pending)

Join the Four Winds Society!

  • Access Information in Our Free Library
  • Study Energy Medicine Practices
  • Learn about Shamanic Healing
  • Achieve Energy Medicine Certification
  • Journey to the Amazon and Sacred Sites
  • Receive Our Monthly Newsletter